AARDDVARK Background Material: References

 

Abel, B., and Thorne, R. M.: Electron scattering loss in earth's inner magnetosphere-2. Sensitivity to model parameters, J. Geophys. Res., 103, 2397-2407, 1998.

Anderson, K. A., and D. W. Milton, Balloon observations of X-rays in the auroral zone, 3, High time resolution studies, J. Geophys. Res., 69, 4457, 1964.

Angerami, J. J., Whistler duct properties deduced from VLF observations made with the OGO 3 satellite near the magnetic equator, J. Geophys. Res., 75, 6115-6135, 1970.

Bailey, D. K., Disturbances in the lower ionosphere observed at VHF following the solar flare of 23 February 1956 with particular reference to the auroral zone absorption, J Geophys. Res., 62, 431-463, 1957.

Bainbridge, G., and, U. S. Inan, Ionospheric D region electron density profiles derived from the measured interference pattern of VLF waveguide modes, Radio Sci., 38 (4): Art. No. 1077, 2003.

Banks, P. M. and G. Kockarts, Aeronomy, Academic Press, N.Y., 1973.

Barr, R., and T. R. Armstrong., 1996. Reflection of VLF radio waves from the Canadian Rockies. Radio Science 31, 533-546.

Barr, R., D. L. Jones, and C. J. Rodger (2000), ELF and VLF Radio Waves, J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys., vol. 62(17-18), 1689-1718.

Blake, J. B., M. D. Looper, D. N. Baker, R. Nakamura, B. Klecker and D. Hovestadt, New high temporal and spatial resolution measurements by SAMPEX of the precipitation of relativistic electrons, Adv. Space Res., 18(8), 171-186, 1996.

Blake, J. B., Inan, U. S., Walt, M., Bell, T. F., Bortnik, J., Chenette, D. L., and Christian, H. J.: Lightning-induced energetic electron flux enhancements in the drift loss cone, J. Geophys. Res., 106, 29733-29744, 2001.

Brasseur, G., and S. Solomon (1986), Aeronomy of the Middle Atmosphere, second ed., D. Reidel Publishing Company, Dordrecht.

Bullough, K., 1995. Power line harmonic radiation: Sources and environmental effects. In: H. Volland (Ed.), Handbook of Atmospheric Electrodynamics, vol. 2, 2nd ed., pp. 291-332, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida.

Byron, W J., 1996. The monster antennas. Communications Quarterly 6(2), 5-24.

Cane H. V., T. T. von Rosenvinge, C. M. S. Cohen, and R. A. Mewaldt, Two components in major solar particle events, Geophys. Res. Lett., 30(12), 8017, doi:10.1029/2002GL016580, 2003.

Christian, H. J., Blakeslee, R. J., Boccippio, D. J., Boeck, W. L., Buechler, D. E., Driscoll, K. T., Goodman, S. J., Hall, J. M., Koshak, W. J., Mach, D. M., and Stewart, M. F.: Global frequency and distribution of lightning as observed from space by the Optical Transient Detector, J. Geophys. Res., 108(D1), 10.1029/2002JD002347, 2003

Clilverd, M. A., Nunn, D., Lev-Tov, S. J., Inan, U. S., Dowden, R. L., Rodger, C. J., and Smith, A. J.: Determining the size of lightning-induced electron precipitation patches, J. Geophys. Res., 107(A8), 10.1029/2001JA000301, 2002..

Clilverd, M. A., Rodger, C. J., and Nunn, D.: Radiation belt electron precipitation fluxes associated with lightning, J. Geophys. Res., 109(12), A12208, 10.1029/2004JA010644, 2004.

Clilverd, M. A., C. J. Rodger, N. R. Thomson, J. B. Brundell, Th. Ulich, J. Lichtenberger, N. Cobbett, A. B. Collier, F. W. Menk, A. Seppälä P. T. Verronen, and E. Turunen, Remote sensing space weather events: the AARDDVARK network, Space Weather, 7, S04001, doi:10.1029/2008SW000412, 2009.

Clilverd, M. A., C. J. Rodger, Th. Ulich, A. Seppälä, E. Turunen, A. Botman, and N. R. Thomson, Modeling a large solar proton event in the southern polar cap, J. Geophys. Res., 110, A09307, doi:10.1029/2004JA010922, 2005a.

Clilverd, M. A., A. Seppälä, C. J. Rodger, N. R. Thomson, P. T. Verronen, E. Turunen, Th. Ulich, J. Lichtenberger, and P. Steinbach (2006b), Modeling polar ionospheric effects during the October-November 2003 solar proton events, Radio Sci., 41, RS2001, doi:10.1029/2005RS003290.

Clilverd, M. A., C. J. Rodger and Th. Ulich, The importance of atmospheric precipitation in storm-time relativistic electron flux drop outs, Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L01102, doi:10.1029/2005GL024661, 2006.

Clilverd, M. A., A. Seppälä, C. J. Rodger, P. T. Verronen, and N. R. Thomson, Ionospheric evidence of thermosphere-to-stratosphere descent of polar NOX, Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L19811, doi:10.1029/2006GL026727, 2006.

Clilverd, M. A., Nunn, D., Lev-Tov, S. J., Inan, U. S., Dowden, R. L., Rodger, C. J., and Smith, A. J.: Determining the size of lightning-induced electron precipitation patches, J. Geophys. Res., 107(A8), 10.1029/2001JA000301, 2002.

Clilverd, M. A., N. P. Meredith, R. B. Horne, S. A. Glauert, R. R. Anderson, N. R. Thomson, F. W. Menk, and B. R. Sandel (2007a), Longitudinal and seasonal variations in plasmaspheric electron density: Implications for electron precipitation, J. Geophys. Res., 112, A11210, doi:10.1029/2007JA012416.

Crombie, D.D., Periodic fading of VLF signals received over long paths during sunrise and sunset. Journal of Research National Bureau of Standards, Radio Science, 68D, 27-34, 1964.

Cummer, S. A. (2000), Modeling electromagnetic propagation in the earth-ionosphere waveguide, IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 48(9), 1420-1429.

Cummer, S.A., U.S. Inan, and T.F. Bell, Ionospheric D region remote sensing using VLF radio atmospherics, Radio Science, 33(6), 1781-1792, 1998.

Datta, S., R. M. Skoug, M. P. McCarthy, and G. K. Parks, Analysis and modeling of microburst precipitation, Geophys. Res. Lett., 23, 1729-1732, 1996.

Detrick, D. L., and T. J. Rosenberg: A phased-array radio wave imager for studies of cosmic noise absorption, Radio Sci., 325-338, 1990.

Dowden, R., C. Rodger, J. Brundell, and M. Clilverd, Decay of whistler-induced electron precipitation and cloud-ionosphere discharge Trimpis: Observations and analysis, Radio Sci., 36(1), 151-169, 2001.

Dungey, J.W.: Loss of Van Allen electrons due to whistlers, Planet. Space Sci., 11, 591-595, 1963.

Dyer, C. S., and F. Lei, S. N. Clucas, D. F. Smart, and M. A. Shea, Calculations and observations of solar particle enhancements to the radiation environment at aircraft altitudes, Adv. Space Res., 32(1), 81-93, 2003.

Engebretson, M. J., et al. (2008), Pc1–Pc2 waves and energetic particle precipitation during and after magnetic storms: Superposed epoch analysis and case studies, J. Geophys. Res., 113, A01211, doi:10.1029/2007JA012362.

Erlandson, R. E., K. Mursula, and T. Bosinger (1996), Simultaneous ground-satellite observations of structured Pc-1 pulsations, J. Geophys. Res., 101, 27149-27156.

Friedel R. H. W., and Hughes, A. R. W.: Trimpi events on low latitude paths - an investigation of gyroresonance interactions at low L-values, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys., 54, 1375-1386, 1992.

Green, J. C., T. G. Onsager, T. P. O'Brien, and D. N. Baker, Testing loss mechanisms capable of rapidly depleting relativistic electron flux in the Earth's outer radiation belt, J. Geophys. Res., 109, A12211, doi:10.1029/2004JA010579, 2004.

Helliwell, R. A., Katsufrakis, J. P., and Trimpi, M. L.: Whistler-induced amplitude perturbation in VLF propagation, J. Geophys. Res., 78, 4679-4688, 1973.

Horne, R. B., and R. M. Thorne, Electron pitch angle diffusion by electrostatic electron cyclotron harmonic waves: the origin of pancake distributions, J. Geophys. Res. Vol. 105, No. A3, p. 5391 (1999JA900447), 2000.

Horne, R. B., and R. M. Thorne, Relativistic electron acceleration and precipitation during resonant interactions with whistler-mode chorus, Geophys. Res. Lett., 30(10), 1527, doi:10.1029/2003GL016973, 2003.

Inan, U.S., Lehtinen, N.G., Lev-Tov, S.J., Johnson, M.P., Bell, T.F., Hurley, K., 1999. Ionization of the lower ionosphere by -rays from a Magnetar: Detection of a low energy (3-10kev) component, Geophysical Research Letters, 26, 3357-3360

Imhof, W. L., H. D. Voss, J. Mobilia, M. Walt, U. S. Inan, and D. L. Carpenter, Characteristics of short-duration electron precipitation bursts and their relationship with VLF wave activity, J. Geophys. Res., 94, 10079, 1989.

Imhof, W. L., H. D. Voss, J. Mobilia, D. W. Datlowe, E. E. Gaines, J. P. McGlennon, and U. S. Inan, Relativistic electron microbursts, J. Geophys. Res., 97, 13829-13837, 1992.

Johnson, M. P., U. S. Inan, and D. S. Lauben, Subionospheric VLF signatures of oblique (nonducted) whistler-induced precipitation, Geophys. Res. Lett., 26, 3569-3572, 1999.

Kavanagh, A. J., S. R. Marple, F. Honary, I. W. McCrea, and A. Senior , On solar protons and polar cap absorption: constraints on an empirical relationship, Ann. Geophys., 22(4), 1133-1147, 2004.

Kennel, C. F., and Petschek, H. E.: Limit on stably trapped particle fluxes, J. Geophys. Res., 71(1), 1-27, 1966.

Kress B. T., M. K. Hudson, K. L. Perry, and P. L. Slocum, Dynamic modeling of geomagnetic cutoff for the 23–24 November 2001 solar energetic particle event, Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L04808, doi:10.1029/2003GL018599, 2004.

Krucker, S., and R. P. Lin, Two classes of solar proton events derived from onset time analysis, Astrophys. J., 542(1): 61-64, 2000.

Lorentzen, K. R., M. D. Looper, and J. B. Blake, Relativistic electron microbursts during the GEM storms, Geophys. Res. Lett. 28 (13), p. 2573 (2001GL012926), 2001a.

Lorentzen, K. R., J. B. Blake, U. S. Inan, and J. Bortnik, Observations of elativistic electron microbursts in association with VLF chorus, J. Geophys. Res., 106 (A4), p. 6017-6027, 2001b.

Lynn, Kenneth J. W., VLF Waveguide Propagation: The Basics, PROPAGATION EFFECTS OF VERY LOW FREQUENCY RADIO WAVES: Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Science with Very Low Frequency Radio Waves: Theory and Observations. AIP Conference Proceedings, Volume 1286, pp. 3-41, DOI: 10.1063/1.3512893, 2010.

Magono, C., 1980. Thunderstorms, Elsevier Sci., Amsterdam.

McRae, W. M. and N. R. Thomson, VLF phase and amplitude: daytime ionospheric parameters, J. Atmos. Sol-Terr. Phys., 62, 609-618, 2000.

McRae, W. M. and N. R. Thomson, Solar flare induced ionospheric D-region enhancements from VLF phase and amplitude observations, J. Atmos. Sol-Terr. Phys., 66, 77-87, 2004.

Meredith, N. P., Horne, R. B., Iles, R. H. A., Thorne, R. M., Heynderickx, D., and Anderson, R. R.: Outer zone relativistic electron acceleration associated with substorm-enhanced whistler mode chorus, J. Geophys. Res., 108, art. no. 1016, 2002.

Meredith, N. P., R. M. Thorne, R. B. Horne, D. Summers, B. J. Fraser, and R. R. Anderson (2003), Statistical analysis of relativistic electron energies for cyclotron resonance with EMIC waves observed on CRRES, J. Geophys. Res., 108(A6), 1250, doi:10.1029/2002JA009700.

Millan, R. M., R. P. Lin, D. M. Smith, K. R. Lorentzen, and M. P. McCarthy, X-ray observations of MeV electron precipitation with a balloon-borne germanium spectrometer, Geophys. Res. Lett., 29(24), 2194, doi:10.1029/2002GL015922, 2002.

Mitra, A. P. Ionospheric effects of solar flares, D. Reidel, Dordrecht, 1974.

Molchanov, O. A., A. V. Shvets, and M. Hayakawa, Analysis of lightning-induced ionisation from VLF Trimpi events, J. Geophys. Res., 103, 23,443-23,458, 1998.

Nakamura, R., M. Isowa, Y. Kamide, D. N. Baker, J. B. Blake, and M. Looper, SAMPEX observations of precipitation bursts in the outer radiation belt, J. Geophys. Res., 105(A7), p. 15,875 (2000JA900018), 2000.

Nunn, D., and H. J. Strangeways, Trimpi perturbations from large ionisation enhancement patches, J. of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Phys., 62, 189-206, 2000.

O'Brien, T. P., M. D. Looper, and J. B. Blake, Quantification of relativistic electron microburst losses during the GEM storms, Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L04802, doi:10.1029/2003GL018621, 2004.

Ogliore, R. C., R. A. Mewaldt, R. A. Leske, E. C. Stone, and T. T. von Rosenvinge, A direct measurement of the geomagnetic cutoff for cosmic rays at space station latitudes, Proceedings of ICRC 2001, 4112-4115, Copernicus Gesellschaft, 2001.

Onsager, T. G., G. Rostoker, H.-J. Kim, G. D. Reeves, T. Obara, H. J. Singer, and C. Smithtro, Radiation belt electron flux dropouts: Local time, radial, and particle-energy dependence, J. Geophys. Res., 107(A11), 1382, doi:10.1029/2001JA000187, 2002.

Pasko, V. P., and Inan, U. S.: Recovery signatures of lightning-associated VLF perturbations as a measure of the lower ionosphere, J. Geophys. Res., 99, 17,523-17,537, 1994.

Randall, C. E., et al. (2005), Stratospheric effects of energetic particle precipitation in 2003–2004, Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L05802, doi:10.1029/2004GL022003.

Reeves, G. D., T. E. Cayton, S. P. Gary, and R. D. Belan, The great solar energetic particle events of 1989 observed from geosynchronous orbit, J. Geophys. Res., 97, 6219-6226, 1992.

Reeves G. D., K. L. McAdams, R. H. W. Friedel, T. P. O'Brien, Acceleration and loss of relativistic electrons during geomagnetic storms, Geophys. Res. Lett., 30 (10), 1529, doi:10.1029/2002GL016513, 2003.

Reid, G. C, S. Solomon, and R. R. Garcia, Response of the middle atmosphere to solar proton events of August-December, 1989, Geophys. Res. Lett., 18, 1019-1022, 1991.

Reinard, A. A., R. M. Skoug, S. Datta, and G. K. Parks, Energy spectral characteristics of auroral electron microburst precipitation, Geophys. Res. Lett., 24, 611-614, 1997.

Renard, J-B., P-L. Blelly, Q. Bourgeois, M. Chartier, F. Goutail, and Y. J. Orsolini (2006), Origin of the January–April 2004 increase in stratospheric NO2 observed in the northern polar latitudes, Geophys. Res. Lett., Vol. 33, No. 11, L11801, 10.1029/2005GL025450

Rinsland, C. P., C. Boone, R. Nassar, K. Walker, P. Bernath, J. C. McConnell, and L. Chiou (2005), Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) Arctic stratospheric measurements of NOX during February and March 2004: Impact of intense solar flares, Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L16S05, doi:10.1029/2005GL022425.

Rodger, C. J., Red sprites, upward lightning and VLF perturbations, Rev. Geophys., 37(3), 317-336, 1999.

Rodger, C. J., Subionospheric VLF perturbations associated with lightning discharges, J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys., 65, 591-606, 2003.

Rodger, C. J., M. A. Clilverd, and R. L. Dowden, D-region reflection height modification by whistler-induced electron precipitation (WEP), J. Geophys. Res., 107(7), 10.1029/2001JA000311, 2002.

Rodger, C. J., Clilverd, M. A., and McCormick, R. J.: Significance of lightning generated whistlers to inner radiation belt electron lifetimes, J. Geophys. Res., 108(12), 1462, 10.1029/2003JA009906, 2003.

Rodger, C. J., McCormick, R. J., and Clilverd, M. A.: Testing the importance of precipitation loss mechanisms in the inner radiation belt, Geophys. Res. Lett., 31(10), L10803, 10.1029/2004GL019501, 2004a.

Rodger, C. J., Nunn, D., and Clilverd, M. A.: Investigating radiation belt losses though numerical modelling of precipitating fluxes, Ann. Geophys., 22(10), 3657-3667, 2004b.

Rodger, C. J., M. A. Clilverd, N. R. Thomson, D. Nunn, and J. Lichtenberger, Global prediction of inner radiation belt energy deposition caused by lightning, Annales Geophys., 23(11), 3419-3430, 2005.

Rodger, C. J., M. A. Clilverd, D. Nunn, P. T. Verronen, J. Bortnik, and E. Turunen, The energy spectrum of relativistic microbursts: comparison with VLF chorus as a source mechanism, Geophys. Res. Lett., 112, A07301, doi:10.1029/2007JA012347, 2007.

Rodger, C. J., T. Raita, M. A. Clilverd, A. Seppälä, S. Dietrich, N. R. Thomson, and T. Ulich (2008a), Observations of relativistic electron precipitation from the radiation belts driven by EMIC waves, Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L16106, doi:10.1029/2008GL034804.

Rycroft, M. J.: Enhanced energetic electron intensities at 100 km altitude and a whistler propagating through the plasmasphere, Planet. Space Sci., 21, 239-251, 1973.

Sandanger, M., F. Søraas, K. Aarsnes, K. Oksavik, and D. S. Evans (2007), Loss of relativistic electrons: Evidence for pitch angle scattering by electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves excited by unstable ring current protons, J. Geophys. Res., 112, A12213, doi:10.1029/2006JA012138.

Seppälä, A., P. T. Verronen, E. Kyrölä, S. Hassinen, L. Backman, A. Hauchecorne, J. L. Bertaux, and D. Fussen, Solar Proton Events of October-November 2003: Ozone depletion in the Northern hemisphere polar winter as seen by GOMOS/Envisat, Geophys. Res. Lett., 31(19), L19,107, doi:10.1029/2004GL021042, 2004.

Shea, M. A., and D. F. Smart, A summary of major solar proton events, Solar Phys., 127(2), 297-320, 1990.

Siskind, D. E. (2000), On the coupling between the middle and upper atmospheric odd nitrogen, in Atmospheric science across the stratopause, Geophysical Mongraph 123, 101-116.

Smart, D. F., and M. A. Shea, Geomagnetic cutoff rigidity calculations at 50-year intervals between 1600 and 2000, Proc.  ICRC 2003, 4201-4204, Universal, 2003b.

Smith, A.J, 1995. Low-frequency radio noise. In: H. Volland (Ed.), Handbook of Atmospheric Electrodynamics; vol. 1, 2nd ed., 297-310, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida.

Solomon S, P.J. Crutzen, R. G. Roble (1982a), Photochemical coupling between the thermosphere and the lower atmosphere .1, Odd nitrogen from 50 to 120 km, J. Geophys. Res., 87, 7206-7220.

Solomon S, G. C. Reid, R. G. Roble, and P.J. Crutzen (1982b), Photochemical coupling between the thermosphere and the lower atmosphere .2, D-region ion chemistry and the winter anomaly, J. Geophys. Res., 87, 7221-7227.

Storey, L. R. O.: An investigation of whistling atmospherics, Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. (London), 246, 113-117, 1953.

Störmer, C., Periodische Elektronenbahnen im Feld eines Elementarmagnetron und ihre Anwendung auf Bruches Modellversuche und auf Eschenhagens Elementarwellen des Erdmagnetismus, Zeitschr. f. Astrophys., 1, 237-274, 1930.

Strangeways, H.J., Lightning induced enhancements of D region ionisation and whistler ducts, J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys., 61, 1067-1080, 1999.

Summers, D., and R. M. Thorne, Relativistic electron pitch-angle scattering by electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves during geomagnetic storms, J. Geophys. Res., 108(A4), 1143, doi:10.1029/2002JA009489, 2003.

Thomson, N.R. (1993), Experimental daytime VLF ionospheric parameters. J. Atmos. Terr. Phys., vol. 55, 173-184.

Thomson, N. R., C. J. Rodger, and R. L. Dowden, Ionosphere gives size of greatest solar flare. Geophys. Res. Lett. 31(6), L06803, doi:10.1029/2003GL019345, 1997.

Thomson, N. R., M. A. Clilverd, and A. J. Smith, IEvidence of more efficient whistler-mode transmission during periods of increased magnetic activity. Annales Geopys. 15(8), L06803, 999-1004 AUG 1997.

Thomson, N.R., C.J. Rodger, and M.A. Clilverd (2005), Large solar flares and their ionospheric D-region enhancements, J. Geophys. Res., vol. 110, A06306, doi:10.1029/2005JA011008.

Turunen, E., Incoherent scatter radar contributions to high latitude D-region aeronomy, Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, 58 (6): 707-725, 1996

Tsurutani, B. T., and Lakhina, G. S.: Some basic concepts of wave-particle interactions in collisionless plasmas, Rev. Geophys., 35(4), 491-501, 1997.

Verronen, P. T., A. Seppälä, M. A. Clilverd, C. J. Rodger, E. Kyrölä, C. Enell, T. Ulich, and E. Turunen (2005), Diurnal variation of ozone depletion during the October–November 2003 solar proton events, J. Geophys. Res., 110, A09S32, doi:10.1029/2004JA010932.

Voss, H. D., Walt, M., Imhof, W. L., Mobilia, J., and Inan, U. S.: Satellite observations of lightning-induced electron precipitation, J. Geophys. Res., 103, 11725-11744, 1998.

Watt, A. D., VLF Radio Engineering, Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1967.

Westerlund, S., F. H. Reder, and C. Abom, Effects of polar cap absorption events on VLF transmissions, Planet. Space Sci., 17, 1329-1374, 1969.

Zmuda, A.J., Shaw, B.W., Haave, C.R., 1963. Very low frequency disturbances and the high-altitude nuclear explosion of July 9, 1962. Journal of Geophysical Research 68, 745-758.

 

Last Updated by Craig Rodger on 23 December 2010